The BRONZE AGE (around the 2nd Millennium BC)
With the improvement of method of production, there are new tools made of copper and bronze. Occurs the first major social division of labor, increasing wealth inequality. Then the craft…

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List of megalithic structures and give a brief description.
Court decisions in States, decisions of arbitration tribunals and m/n commercial arbitration, adopted by them in the territories of the States are recognised and enforced in the Russian Federation as,…

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Architecture Venice

Venice embodies the harmonious mixture of different styles, which characterize different eras. The picturesque town is not at the expense of nature and greenery, which will not find here in abundance, and thanks to the kaleidoscope of streets and canals, sumptuous palaces and Gothic churches, which, merging together, create a magical, colorful look of the city on the water. On the Venetian architecture was significantly influenced by four styles – Byzantine, Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance. It worked the architect Longhena, Palladio, Codussi, Sansovino, the painters Titian, Giorgione, Guardi, Tintoretto, Canaletto, Tiepolo and many others.

In 14-16 centuries laid the architectural appearance of Venice, which absorbed the traditions of the Byzantine, Arab and Gothic motifs. The city centre is simply filled with architectural masterpieces. St. Mark’s square, paved with marble, decorated pentagonal eponymous Cathedral, built in 829 -832 years and rebuilt in the 11th century, framed by marble edifices of Old (early 15th – early 16th centuries) and New Procuratie (16-17 CC.). The Cathedral is decorated with bronze Byzantine doors of the 11th century and the four bronze horses 4-3 centuries BC brought in 1204, the year of Constantinople, and, rising above the Central portal. In the Church’s interior used mosaic 12-14 centuries, mosaic marble floors, and a variety of sculptures, bas-reliefs, columns and jewellery, as delivered by the trophies at different times. One of ukrainianised St. Mark’s is a 100-meter bell tower – the bell tower, preterpevaet changes since the late eighth century to early 20th. At its foot there is a small Loggetta (1517), which was used as a tribune for the Venetian nobles in the days of festivities and ceremonies. On the list of masterpieces of Piazza San Marco is not the end. Small Piazzetta – “I’ll pay” is attached to the square and overlooks the lagoon. On the sides of the Piazzetta are the Old library of San Marco (1536-1554.) of white marble and the magnificent Ducal Palace of the 9th century, work on the face of which were completed in 14-16 centuries, with marble balconies and facade. To the East of the Doge’s Palace adjoins the legendary Bridge of Sighs, enmeshed in romantic beliefs and the sad details. And to the North there is a square centi-Joe-Vanni e Paolo, on which stands the homonymous Gothic Church(1246-1430 years), the equestrian monument to the condottiere Colleoni and the 15th century public building of the Scuola Grande di San Marco (1488-90.). These buildings and the area are one of the best architectural ensembles of the city.

Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque palaces with lush string follow one another, lying along the main canal in Venice – the Grand canal.

This three-story Vendra-min-Calergi with decorative front facade (15th century), and ornate CA d’oro gold plated with carved ornaments and gold marble facade, and corner-Spinel-Lee (the late 15th – early 16th centuries), and the monumental Palazzo corner (V. 16) with the characteristics of Roman architecture, and Rezzonico (V. 17), which is a wonderful example of classic Venetian architecture, and the Baroque CA ‘ Pesaro (completed in 1710), and other magnificent creations of different times.

In short, definitely go for a walk along the Grand canal, you’ll find all the variety and luxury of Venetian palaces. Another creation that will reveal a familiarity with the Big canal, the famous Rialto bridge, the first and most ancient bridge over the canal. During its history it has repeatedly suffered from various afflictions, updated and reconstructed. On the right Bank of the Grand canal, near the Rialto bridge, is another noteworthy structure – Pescheria di Rialto, the fish market building is in neo-Gothic style.

1460-1470 years were a crucial period for the Venetian architecture of the Renaissance. This is due to the arrival of architects from the provinces and of Lombardy, among whom was Mauro Codussi, author of the famous Clock tower Torre Dell’orologio on St Mark’s square, the Old procuracies and other masterpieces, which still impress with their beauty. At the same time, another prominent architect, Pietro Lombardo, also arrived in Venice. In the future, two of these famous architects were a lot of joint work. Codussi became the first architect in Venice who started to use in the design of buildings Florentine motifs. He was able to successfully connect to my works existing the style of Byzantine architecture and innovative ideas of the Renaissance. The influence of the ideas of Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti and Michelozzo affected the new look of the lagoon – from the first works of Cadossi, starting with the Church of San Michele in Isola (1468-1479). She was the first Renaissance Church in Venice. And today, the white chapel captivates with its graceful proportions, graceful décor and peaceful forms. San Michele in Isola has a tripartite facade, in which Cadossi inspired the famous Malatesta temple (Tempio Malatestiano), built according to the pioneering project of Alberti in the mid 15th century. The development of Venetian tradition in a contemporary way, can also be seen inside the Church of Santa Maria Formosa, where they again encountered architectural elements of Brunelleschi – for example, grey stone that stands out on white plaster. Codussi loved to decorate the facades with ornaments, had a passion for forms a semi-circular pediments.

To discover the most ancient buildings is to go to the island of Torcello, which has received the proud title of “Mother of Venice” due to the fact that it was inhabited in 5th-6th centuries, and later became the center of island Commerce. In Torcello are worth a visit in the Cathedral Church of the assumption of St. Mary – Santa Maria Assunta (Santa Maria Dell’assunta). This masterpiece of strict Romanesque style, called by the Venetians “Veneto-Byzantine” was created by the rich inhabitants of the island in the 7th century, when practically all of Italy had ceased, a stone building, and Rome was buried in the depths of barbarism. The inner space is a three-nave Basilica decorated with mosaics in the Byzantine style. The Church was rebuilt in the 11th-12th centuries and from the past she kept the remains of the baptistery of the 7th century. Be sure to climb the bell tower of the Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta it offers a magnificent view of the Islands and the lagoon. Nearby is the cross-shaped Church of Santa Fosca, built in 7-8 century, With five sides it is surrounded by arched porticos with columns of Greek marble. Unfortunately, the dome of the Church is not preserved, you can see only his low drum, which is almost flat covered with tiles.

For the artistic appearance of the buildings Torcello island was called “Little Byzantium”. But on the island of the glass blowers is to go not just for the famous Murano glass, but also for another masterpiece of the 7th century Romano-Byzantine Church of Santi Maria e Donato (Basilica di Santa Maria e Donato). Hexagonal altar apse of this brick three-nave Basilica with columns of Greek marble decorated with two tiers of arches prospectively shrinking on thin coupled columns.

In Venice you can find not only exquisite architectural masterpieces of previous centuries, but modern and modernist design. So, in 2008, the year via the Grand canal was built Constitution Bridge (Ponte della Costituzione).

It was designed by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava Valls to connect the railway station Venezia Santa Lucia and Piazzale Roma (Piazzale Roma) where is the bus station. The bridge was named in honor of the 60th anniversary of the Italian Constitution, also known as the Fourth bridge and the Calatrava Bridge.

Residents in the construction process showed outrage and indignation, the main points of discontent of the Venetians are: a modernist style that does not fit the overall architectural concept of the city, poor location too close to the bridge of Scalzi, and that was not provided for the possibility of movement on the bridge for wheelchair users. The last item was resolved with the help of special lifts installed for disabled people, protests, and rallies the townspeople against the other two points remained unheard. Due to the dissatisfaction of the majority of Venetians innovation, violated the appearance of urban architecture, the opening of the Bridge of the Constitution for pedestrians took place without any ceremonies and celebrations. However, not everyone embraced the arrival in town of a new era of hostile architecture – modernist art community Bridge Calatrava has inspired.

To tell about the architecture of Venice to infinity, and to study it for one or even a few trips is not possible, it has absorbed centuries-old traditions and, apparently, still continues to sculpted contemporary world architects.

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