The BRONZE AGE (around the 2nd Millennium BC)
With the improvement of method of production, there are new tools made of copper and bronze. Occurs the first major social division of labor, increasing wealth inequality. Then the craft…

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Gothic cathedrals
Gothic, Gothic style arose and dominated the Western artistic culture immediately after romance. Gothic art originated in France around 1140 years and spread throughout Europe in the next century. The…

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A very different Spain – Gothic Spain

It should be remembered that the Gothic Cathedral is not only an architectural object, but also the example of synthesis of various arts: stained glass, sculpture, painting. In the temple could be several hundred and even thousands of stone statues, and almost always painted; along the walls hung colorful tapestries, and light fell through the stained glass. Each color had a meaning: red meant blood and jer-tsennosti, blue – sky and loyalty, purple is a mystical Color prayers, sacrifices in the name of Heaven, Green was a symbol of love, yellow – light and the Sun.

In all Catholic churches of Spain can be seen typical for this country wooden statue of the virgin Mary, Christ, apostles and saints painted in clothes, so-called yestofado. This art form originated in the XVI-XVII centuries and is rarely found outside of the Iberian Peninsula. Masters carved out of wood figure, and the painters painted her, and there was a separate profession of “abrasively body”, “abrasively clothes”, zolotilov. Some masters would put statues crystal eyes, and his face was placed a crystal tears. These images and now are sometimes the object of worship; the most valuable of them typically kept in the Cathedral museums – almost in every major city in the Cathedral of the small exhibition (entrance is usually paid), located in the former Treasury where he kept the most precious objects of sacred worship. The rich collection of carved wood, or vannoy sculptures can be seen in the national Museum of sculpture in Valladolid.

While the Christian States in the Central and Northern parts of the Iberian Peninsula were built Romanesque and Gothic churches in the South, in Andalusia, was a special, Spanish-Moorish style. Under its influence in the fourteenth century appeared the mudéjar style, which followed the Arab masters who remained in Christian lands, so in many purely Christian buildings Central areas of Spain you can see traces of the Arab culture. Two distinctive features characteristic of Moorish architecture: the plaster arches, decorated with pyramidal cells and one hundred-tacticoolwannabe ledges, and horseshoe arches. Arab architects are rarely adorned the facades of the building, preferring not to attract too much attention, but with extraordinary luxury trimmed interior. The palaces of the caliphs and emirs is the huge complexes (usually one – or two-storey), with gardens, fountains, ponds, halls for the reception of ambassadors, facilities for women, many connecting bedrooms. They are ideally suited for leisurely contemplation of beauty.

As the Arab city of RAS relied in the southern part of the Peninsula, where the summer atmosphere is dry and sultry weather, it is an important task facing the builders was to provide coolness. At each house there was a small rectangular courtyard with shady trees – patio. For protection from the sun and the premature destruction of houses painted in lime white. The streets were extremely narrow, which also prevented the penetration of the sun. The center of any Arab city was a fortress (Arabic for “Alka-SAR”), standing on a hill and surrounded by strong walls.

Underground construction
One of the structural units of Construction Association interbudmontazh, the company “Interbudtunnel” performs works on construction and installation of various underground structures, tunnels, engineering and transportation networks, as well as…


The meaning of the word megalithic
Have associated with special megalithic masonry and anthropomorphic stone sculptures on coming to America the outlying Islands, the emergence of Maori-Polynesian dogs, the spread in Polynesia 26-chromosomal cultural American cotton…

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