It should be remembered that the Gothic Cathedral is not only an architectural object, but also the example of synthesis of various arts: stained glass, sculpture, painting. In the temple could be several hundred and even thousands of stone statues, and almost always painted; along the walls hung colorful tapestries, and light fell through the stained glass. Each color had a meaning: red meant blood and jer-tsennosti, blue – sky and loyalty, purple is a mystical Color prayers, sacrifices in the name of Heaven, Green was a symbol of love, yellow – light and the Sun.
In all Catholic churches of Spain can be seen typical for this country wooden statue of the virgin Mary, Christ, apostles and saints painted in clothes, so-called yestofado. This art form originated in the XVI-XVII centuries and is rarely found outside of the Iberian Peninsula. Masters carved out of wood figure, and the painters painted her, and there was a separate profession of “abrasively body”, “abrasively clothes”, zolotilov. Some masters would put statues crystal eyes, and his face was placed a crystal tears. These images and now are sometimes the object of worship; the most valuable of them typically kept in the Cathedral museums – almost in every major city in the Cathedral of the small exhibition (entrance is usually paid), located in the former Treasury where he kept the most precious objects of sacred worship. The rich collection of carved wood, or vannoy sculptures can be seen in the national Museum of sculpture in Valladolid. Continue reading
Robert Mason of the Royal Ontario Museum (Canada) discovered in Syria, a mysterious stone circles and other features of the landscape that look as if they created people.
“They don’t have impressive size, as some of the megaliths, but they are clearly deliberately aligned, and therefore very interesting,” — said the archaeologist who first stumbled on them in 2009 near the monastery of Deir Mar Musa (Saint. Moses the Abyssinian), which is approximately 80 km North of Damascus.
A pile of stones (stage building) and a stone circle. Photo: Robert Mason
Alas, the tense situation in Syria have hindered excavation. A preliminary analysis of fragments of stone tools, are scattered in this area, put this date in their Neolithic and early bronze age of 6-10 thousand years ago.
According to Mr. Mason, the stones are positioned to stand out amid the empty landscape. Nearby there is nothing that would indicate a settlement. This is unusual, because the Neolithic people, as a rule, buried the dead and performed rites right there where they lived. Continue reading
Complex structures, which serve to extract water from the source is called the water intake. Depending on the source water supply intake structures are distinguished:
According to the degree of stationarity of the intakes are divided into stationary and non-stationary (floating, travelling). By purpose are divided into technical and drinking. Duration of operation – permanent and temporary. Technological and design features – bucket, power, combined, etc. By location of receiving waters – coastal and bed. The required reliability of water supply in accordance with the instructions of SNiP II-31-74. The performance of small (less than 1 m 3 /h), medium (from 1 to 6 m 3 /h) and large (more than 6 m 3 /h). Continue reading