The BRONZE AGE (around the 2nd Millennium BC)
With the improvement of method of production, there are new tools made of copper and bronze. Occurs the first major social division of labor, increasing wealth inequality. Then the craft…

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The most beautiful Gothic cathedrals.
Aachen Cathedral – one of the Imperial cathedrals of Germany, which for centuries were crowned monarchs to reign. He began his history of about 800 years, when king Charlemagne ordered…

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The most beautiful Gothic cathedrals.
Aachen Cathedral – one of the Imperial cathedrals of Germany, which for centuries were crowned monarchs to reign. He began his history of about 800 years, when king Charlemagne ordered…


During the reconstruction of the Nesvizh castle have been discovered unknown underground structures
Correspondents BelTA has learned that during the reconstruction of the Nesvizh castle have been found, unknown to the present day underground structure . The Radziwill Palace, known to many tourists,…


The Mystery Of Stonehenge
Stonehenge (Engl. Stonehenge, lit. "stone henges") — a UNESCO world heritage stone megalithic structure (cromlech) on Salisbury plain in Wiltshire (England). Is about 130 km South-West of London. A gigantic…


Architecture Venice
Venice embodies the harmonious mixture of different styles, which characterize different eras. The picturesque town is not at the expense of nature and greenery, which will not find here in…


Facilities for surface water intake

Complex structures, which serve to extract water from the source is called the water intake. Depending on the source water supply intake structures are distinguished:

a) coastal;

b) run-of-river;

b) reservoir;

d) lacustrine;

d) marine.

According to the degree of stationarity of the intakes are divided into stationary and non-stationary (floating, travelling). By purpose are divided into technical and drinking. Duration of operation – permanent and temporary. Technological and design features – bucket, power, combined, etc. By location of receiving waters – coastal and bed. The required reliability of water supply in accordance with the instructions of SNiP II-31-74. The performance of small (less than 1 m 3 /h), medium (from 1 to 6 m 3 /h) and large (more than 6 m 3 /h).

The water source and the choice depends on local environmental conditions. Industrial enterprise generally uses surface water.

For a reliable choice of source of water supply devices and diversion structures should consider the following features of the reservoir:

A) security costs and levels;

B) the nature of the sediment;

In) stability of the channel;

G) the ice regime;

D) water quality.

Security costs and urovnevaja.

When designing water intake facilities should take into account the availability of design flows and water level in the reservoir.

The nature of the sediment.

The river water carries with it solid particles moving along the bottom and directly in the stream. When choosing a water intake facilities should take into account that entrained suspension along the bottom of the river, can bring water intake structure.

The stability of the riverbed.

The riverbed is constantly under the influence of river flow and different winding shape in plan. This form of the channel due to the blur ability in the most stable location of the riverbed.

The ice regime.

With the onset of cold at low water speeds, the surface layer of water cools and forms ice. At high speeds of water movement the formation of the ice cover difficult. In this case, the ice cover is preceded by the autumn break, accompanied by the formation of bottom (deep) of ice. It is formed by the supercooling of water. Fast flow of supercooled water is in a state of turbulent flow that lead to an intensive heat exchange between the surface and bottom layers. In contact with supercooled water layer with a solid surface of the river bottom is formed of bottom ice, which can reach thicknesses of 1.5 m.

The formation of bottom ice is preceded by the appearance of sludge, which can cover almost all the section of the river, and this in turn complicates the operation of water intake facilities. Effective action to reduce the sludge is the discharge of spent water in the receiving water, heated water vapor grates, replacement of metal grilles wood.

General technological scheme of water intake has two characteristic types: coastal and riverbed. They differ in the location of withdrawal point of water relative to the shore and can be performed on separate and combined scheme.

Satisfied with run-of-river intakes in the absence of sufficient depths, water pollution, or weak soils near the coast, the higher water temperature in this place. The scheme of separate intake channel type regardless of the type of water body includes: a flooded inlet with bars, siphon or gravity pipe, shore the water sump, pumping station first lift, the camera switching. Water through the inlet of the suction conduit enters into the receiving well. The water velocity in gravity lines are equal 1-1,5 km/h. On suction lines with a diameter up to 500 mm establish adoptive valves, with diameters over 500 mm the vacuum pumps. The velocity of the water at the suction pipe is taken equal to 1,2 -1,7 km/h.

The scheme intake channel shown in Fig. 2-1. This scheme is applicable to intakes with low productivity. At medium and large capacity intake used scheme that combines coastal sumps and suction chamber with pumping stations of the first lift.

Unknown Turkey
In one of the most mysterious corners of the globe - Cappadocia one of the most mysterious corners of the earth - Cappadocia the Lunar rocks, Martian Chronicles 750 kilometers…


The Gothic Cathedral
The Gothic Cathedral contains in itself the whole world of the medieval city, is an encyclopedia. The Gothic temperamental and dramatic, and stressful life of the medieval city. The birthplace…


The most magnificent Gothic cathedrals in France
Chartres Cathedral The Cathedral in Chartres (XII-XIV centuries) is considered one of the most beautiful in Europe. Chartres, where the precious relics of our lady, enjoyed the special protection of…

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30 meter high earth mound at White lake was built by the giants?
Thirty meters cyclopean constructions of earthworks in the city of Belozersk of the Vologda region of the imagination of people still If the Arab Ambassador arrived in the capital of…