Architecture is the art of creating masterpieces, among which we live and which we admire every day. We pass by, not knowing how much effort, knowledge and talent invested in the seemingly ordinary in our opinion the building. In every age of the building and their architecture expressed the changes in society, in the formation of the state in public order and other things.
The term “Gothic” in the modern sense was first used by Giorgio Vasari to distinguish the Renaissance from the middle Ages. Gothic architecture originated in 1150 – 1550, in the North of France. This style not only architecture but also painting, sculpture, murals, etc., in the late Medieval period. It spread across Western and Central Europe, to a lesser extent in Eastern Europe. In part, it arose out of German culture. Also contributed to the emergence of a new style and Islamic culture, with its Crusades and products. This style is, first of all, the religious undertones that characterizes the Christian worldview. Gothic style became the platform for the displacement of feudalism because they were under pressure from the “free cities”. This contributed to the development of trade and craftsmanship in these cities, which in turn helped to gain Finance for construction,in addition to craft shops were preparing qualified specialists. Continue reading
Thirty meters cyclopean constructions of earthworks in the city of Belozersk of the Vologda region of the imagination of people still
If the Arab Ambassador arrived in the capital of Bulgaria a bit earlier, he could see the giant was still alive, but shortly before the visit of Ibn Fadlan, the man-giant had to kill because of his evil and violent temper. Held him on the outskirts of the city chained to a tree, fed meat wild birds and animals that he with appetite ate straight raw. Curious I went to watch the giant not only from the capital of Bulgaria, but even from remote villages of this country, and for a long time the sight was one of the main entertainments of the people. However, after the children were fainting from the terrible antics of a giant, and pregnant women were having miscarriages from his terrible roar, the giant Tsar was killed.
Most importantly — Ahmed Ibn Fadlan says in his memoirs that the giant was brought to Bulgaria from the far North, from the country of the PISG, where many fur-bearing animals, forests and lakes. Modern sources consider it “the land of the PISG” the area of White lake and its environs, where in ancient times lived the people of the PISG, or the entire (current Veps). What giants lived a thousand years ago within the borders of the Vologda region? How the message is Ibn Fadlan is true? Continue reading
Torun is one of the most beautiful cities in Poland, situated on the North of the country on the banks of the Vistula river. Gothic architectural monuments located in the Old town of Torun, in 1997 were listed as a world heritage site by UNESCO. During the second World war, the city is not substantially affected, so all the old buildings and the building retains its original appearance.
Archaeological excavations confirm that the first settlements on the territory of present city was founded in 1100 BC but the name Torun gave the settlement the knights of the Teutonic order, who arrived here in the early thirteenth century. and who built a castle here. Toruń city rights received in 1233 over the centuries, the city remained an important center of trading routes and several times changed its owners: toruń was a part of not only Poland, but also Prussia and Sweden.
Torun – the city is famous for gingerbread, a genuine Gothic structures and Nicolaus Copernicus. Here, in 1473 G. was born the famous astronomer and mathematician, the author of the geocentric system of the world, which marked the beginning of the 1st scientific revolution. The Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun is one of the most prestigious Universities in Poland. Continue reading