In Torun is full of beautiful places!
Torun is one of the most beautiful cities in Poland, situated on the North of the country on the banks of the Vistula river. Gothic architectural monuments located in the Old town of Torun, in 1997 were listed as a world heritage site by UNESCO. During the second World war, the city is not substantially affected, so all the old buildings and the building retains its original appearance.
Archaeological excavations confirm that the first settlements on the territory of present city was founded in 1100 BC but the name Torun gave the settlement the knights of the Teutonic order, who arrived here in the early thirteenth century. and who built a castle here. Toruń city rights received in 1233 over the centuries, the city remained an important center of trading routes and several times changed its owners: toruń was a part of not only Poland, but also Prussia and Sweden.
Torun – the city is famous for gingerbread, a genuine Gothic structures and Nicolaus Copernicus. Here, in 1473 G. was born the famous astronomer and mathematician, the author of the geocentric system of the world, which marked the beginning of the 1st scientific revolution. The Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun is one of the most prestigious Universities in Poland.
Torun gingerbread – known cakes produced by bakers of the city for almost 700 years. Cakes are available in different shapes and sizes, often with images of the city’s attractions and scenes the courtly life of the middle ages. The city has a Museum of Gingerbread, where you can not only learn all about the history of gingerbread in Torun things, but to bake your delicious, unique cake.
An impressive effect also produces night lights of the Old Town: many buildings beautifully illuminated at night.
Castle of the Teutonic knights
Castle of the Teutonic knights
Torun castle was the first fortress of the Teutonic knights in Poland. Its construction was begun in 1230 on the orders of Prince Konrad I Mazowiecki, representative of the Piast dynasty. The castle was built in the form of a horseshoe – it is this architectural form was used to spread later than the quadrangular form.
Until survived only a small part of the castle, defensive tower, walls and basements. Now there is a Museum in which to view available restored bedrooms of the knights, kitchen, library and Armory. Also on the territory of the former fortress, various festivals and fashion shows.
In the middle ages toruń was a pretty well-fortified: the city was surrounded by walls with 33 defensive towers and 8 gates. To this day preserved 8 towers (the most famous Tower-Dovecote and Leaning Tower) and gate 3 (Monastic, Sailor and Bridge).
Sailor Gate . leading to the pier, built of red brick for nearly 50 years and were completed in mid-fourteenth century It was the starting point of the Royal road, which welcomed arriving in the city of kings and other noble personages.
In 1432 by the architect Hans Gotland were constructed Bridge gate is a rectangular brick building with rounded corners. The facade of the gate is decorated with arched recesses in the wall and frieze with openwork tracery.
Between the Sailor and the Monastery gate there is a Tower-dovecote is a square brick defensive building of the XIV century. size 11,2×5,8 m with a hipped roof and Dormer Windows. Its name it received in the XIX century because it contained a special trap for pigeons.
A notable landmark of Torun is the Leaning or crooked Tower of the XIII century, which bears the name of Pisa because of its similarities with the famous tower in Italy. Curve tower due to technological errors or caving soil is much deviated from the vertical – 1.46 m. Many citizens believed that the incident is due to “blasphemous” by the discoveries of Nicolaus Copernicus and a divine punishment. Now the tower houses a café and gift shop.
Cathedral of Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist
The brick Gothic Church was built in several stages, starting from the 2nd half of the XIII century In the interior of the Church many rich decorations and furniture. In the presbytery are preserved frescoes of the XIV century depicting the Crucifixion and the last Judgment. In the tower of the temple is the bell, cast in 1500 and which is the third largest in Poland. Also kept in the Cathedral of the XIII century font in which probably baptized Nicolaus Copernicus. In 1935 Cathedral of Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist received the status of a Minor Basilica.
The temple was founded by the knights of Teutonic knights in 1309, and was intended to serve as a demonstration of the prestige of the Teutonic order. So the Church was built to a pretty impressive size (length 53 m, width 29 m and a height of 49 m) and characteristic shape with many architectural details and richness of the exquisite interior. Still, there are precious paintings of the XIV and XV centuries, the statue of the virgin of the XVI century and Gothic icons. Interesting fact: in 1703, during the war, the Swedes took from the Cathedral 2 large bell. One of them is now in one of the temples of the city of Uppsala and is the biggest bell of Sweden.
The house of Nicolaus Copernicus is a Museum located in two adjacent houses, one of which was born the famous astronomer. The collection of exhibits within the building, represents a variety of tools, objects and materials related to the life of a famous scientist. In the second house there is an exhibition devoted to the objects of everyday life and culture Torun the XVI century. Here you can see antique furniture, pottery, paintings and other works of art.
In Torun in 1252-1259. laid the main city square in size 105109 m, later called the Old Market, because in 1264 commenced the construction of the New Market area of M. 9595 Old Market and New Market at the same time were the main squares of the city until their unification in 1454 All significant events in the life of toruń took place on the Market square: here read Royal decrees, arranged executions, were held festivals and fairs.
The main building of the Old Market, of course, was the town Hall . She performed not only administrative functions, but was also a place of trade. Torun town Hall was built in the late XIII century in Gothic style. At first it consisted of two long buildings, and modern appearance while a large-scale restructuring in 1391-1399 G. Hall acquired a rectangular shape four integrated buildings with an inner courtyard. Unusual for Europe at that time was the decision to merge in the town Hall administrative, judicial and commercial systems. New floor and the Gothic elements of the building received at the beginning of the XVII century, thanks to Dutch architect Anthony van Obbergen. Now in the town Hall there is the main Department of the regional Museum, where a collection of works of Gothic art.
The Church Of The Holy Trinity
On the square a New Market in the early fourteenth century was also built the town Hall, where there was a court and meeting hall, and various shops and stalls. After the unification of Old and New Markets in the XV century a New town Hall lost its importance and in 1667, the building was converted into the Church of the Holy Trinity . which served as parish Church of the evangelists. During the Napoleonic wars it suffered heavy damage, so in the 20-ies of the XIX century. the city authorities decided to demolish the building. For the remainder of the Foundation construction began on the new Church, which was completed in 1824, Arcade style with a classic interior was designed by German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel. In the first half of the XX century the Church became a Russian Orthodox garrison Church of St. Nicholas, and after World war II there was a warehouse. At the end of XX century the Church was restored, retaining all the original details of its decoration. Now the building of the Church of the Holy Trinity art gallery.
The Monument Of Nicholas Copernicus
Near the Old town Hall stands the Church of the Holy spirit – the Roman Catholic Church, the opening of which occurred in July 1756 the Author of the project was young Torun master Ephraim Schrager. Church length 46 m, width 23 m and a height of 14 m can accommodate 1,300 people. In 1897-1899, the German architect Hugo Hartung tower was built in neo-Baroque style with a height of 64 m. The original interior of the Church with all the elements of the decoration have survived to the present day, you can see the altar in the Rococo style and the Baroque wall paintings, Dating from the beginning of the XVIII century
In the Old Market there is a very visible building with beautiful arched Windows and a hipped roof: it is the Artus court . until the seventeenth century which bore the name “Club house”. The current structure is the third Arthur’s court at this place. At the end of the XIV century, there was a Gothic structure belonging to the Brotherhood of St. George. It was the most beautiful and exquisite building after the town Hall on the Market square. The second Yard was built in 1826 and survived until 1889 Today