Gothic, Gothic style arose and dominated the Western artistic culture immediately after romance. Gothic art originated in France around 1140 years and spread throughout Europe in the next century. The term “Gothic” applied to the late, high or classical ages. Gothic style served primarily the Church. The Gothic period is considered to be one of the greatest in the history of European art and culture.
Gothic style is most clearly represented in the architecture.
A characteristic feature of the Gothic style steel ribbed vaults. The medieval churches of the Romanesque style had a powerful stone arches, which were very heavy. They sought to shore, to push the walls outward, which could bring down the building. To keep such arches, the walls of the Romanesque buildings had to be thick and heavy. At the beginning of the 12th century, masons developed the ribbed vaults: slender stone arches, placed diagonally, transversely and longitudinally. These arches could rely just on columns, walls ceased to be load-bearing structures. In the construction so there was a real revolution. Continue reading
The Cathedral in Chartres (XII-XIV centuries) is considered one of the most beautiful in Europe. Chartres, where the precious relics of our lady, enjoyed the special protection of king Louis IX, who gave the Cathedral a large window-rose. Stained glass Windows donated to the Cathedral, the artisans of the city.
In the construction of the Cathedral was attended by many people: for example, in 40-ies of the XII century Norman thousands of pilgrims came to Chartres and a few months to destroy stone blocks in the walls of the Cathedral reach two to three meters long and one meter in height. The Western facade is the only thing that survived from an earlier building. Its creation dates to 1170. The façade is adorned with three richly decorated with magnificent stone carvings of the portal belonging to the XII century. From the North and South facades of the building you can see is very typical of French Gothic, a huge, round lace box, in which the openings in lead casements inserted stained glass. The diameter of the Windows of the transept is 13 meters. A screen similar to this entered art history under the name “rose”. It first appeared in the Chartres Cathedral, Continue reading
The Romans adopted from the Greeks all their main achievements, including the steam baths. In the Roman version, they were called the baths. The Romans appreciated the pleasure that gives hot steam. The Roman physician Asklepiad was a follower of Hippocrates in the usefulness of soft paired treatments. His point of view was the idea that in the human body there are little bits that need to move continuously to ensure that the man felt the energy and was able to work. When there is stagnation of these particles as a result of illness or prolonged immobility — it is necessary to give the body a “jolt” in the form of visiting the steam bath, so that these life giving particles again are in motion. As the poet Horace wrote: “Throw me the ball on the marble steps and go to the bath”. No less than the famous ancient Greek poet Ovid in the “Metamorphoses” described his dream to rejuvenate and believed that this will help him a magic tub of hot water.
However, it seems that you with all the imagination can’t imagine the size of Roman baths that were built in those days. According to the testimony of the Roman historian Marcelina, baths in area of space could rival a small city. One big Terma could occupy 12 hectares, and it was far from the limit. The fact that the baths were not only bathing facilities, but also social, cultural, sporting and entertainment facilities. Continue reading