The Cathedral in Chartres (XII-XIV centuries) is considered one of the most beautiful in Europe. Chartres, where the precious relics of our lady, enjoyed the special protection of king Louis IX, who gave the Cathedral a large window-rose. Stained glass Windows donated to the Cathedral, the artisans of the city.
In the construction of the Cathedral was attended by many people: for example, in 40-ies of the XII century Norman thousands of pilgrims came to Chartres and a few months to destroy stone blocks in the walls of the Cathedral reach two to three meters long and one meter in height. The Western facade is the only thing that survived from an earlier building. Its creation dates to 1170. The façade is adorned with three richly decorated with magnificent stone carvings of the portal belonging to the XII century. From the North and South facades of the building you can see is very typical of French Gothic, a huge, round lace box, in which the openings in lead casements inserted stained glass. The diameter of the Windows of the transept is 13 meters. A screen similar to this entered art history under the name “rose”. It first appeared in the Chartres Cathedral, Continue reading
With the improvement of method of production, there are new tools made of copper and bronze. Occurs the first major social division of labor, increasing wealth inequality. Then the craft separated from agriculture, is the second major division of labor. All this played a crucial role in the development of civilization. In the Nile valley, in Mesopotamia and China established a slave system, the first class of the state. All this led to the development of different spheres of human spiritual activity.
The overwhelming significance of monumental architecture associated with the development of religious beliefs, the cult of ancestors and nature. These were megalithic structures – menhirs (gr. meg). – a large, lit – rock) – single cigar-shaped stone pillars with a height up to 20 m (Brittany, France); sometimes they stretched in parallel rows for several miles (“the Stone army” – the Caucasus, Armenia; the alley of menhirs in Brittany); Continue reading
The place is known to everyone, and it is called Prague Castle. Today our tour guide will be already known by our previous walking man – Dr. Frantisek Kadlec, Director of the tourism Department of the Administration of Prague Castle. So, in order to understand when and why the Gothic style appeared in the Czech Republic in General and Prague in particular, let us look a little into history.
Then Charles IV decided to invite to Prague architect and the first architect who comes to Prague for the construction of the Prague Castle became a French architect Mathieu of Arras. In 1344 he laid the first stone of the future Gothic Cathedral. The Gothic style was very different from its predecessor is quite simple Romanesque style. Now we are in the so-called Third courtyard of Prague Castle, and the very structure of St. Vitus Cathedral speaks eloquently about what Gothic architecture is very luxurious and magnificent.
Mathieu of Arras was destined to work on the construction of the Cathedral for eight years. He died in 1352. Then Charles IV was forced to seek a new architect, and he found him in the person of a young native Austrian city of Gmunden Peter Parler, who at the time of arrival to Prague was only 23 years old. Continue reading