Large ceremonial structures IX Millennium BC have been discovered in Asia Minor. They belong to the era of the emergence of agriculture and animal husbandry in the society, under the influence of or directly from it happened later middle Eastern and European Neolithic. Structures are a large circle patterns, based on megalithic columns (3 m or more) of solid hewn stone. The most ancient of nowadays known are the temples of Göbekli Tepe and Nevali-Chori. In the Göbekli Tepe thus far excavated only four churches out of about two dozen. The diameter reaches some 30 m. On the columns there are bas-relief images of animals (foxes, boars, lions, birds, snakes and Scorpions) . Although these temples are the oldest megalithic structures on Earth, it is unknown how they are related to European megaliths  .
Megaliths are prevalent worldwide mainly in coastal areas. In Europe they mostly date back to the Eneolithic and bronze age (3rd — 2nd mill B. C.), with the exception of the British Isles. Continue reading
Another type of masonry, which attracted our attention in Cusco, has left a very ambiguous impression. This clutch of relatively small (although sometimes reach hundreds of kilograms) of mainly rectangular blocks of granite or basalt, laid without any mortar.
On the one hand, this style of masonry radically different from the megalithic polygonal. In addition, some of the houses where there are areas of walls with similar walls date back to the period already already after the Spanish conquest. On the other hand, there are a number of reasons, which makes you wonder about the possibility of creating of the masonry is not Spanish, and not even by the Incas, and a very different civilization.
First, the Spaniards, in full compliance with the building traditions and skills of the Old world – widely used solution. Laying stone blocks on each other without mortar for them it was unusual and even strangers. Continue reading
Founded in the year 1044 by Prince Yaroslav . Novgorod Kremlin — the oldest surviving in Russia Kremlins.
The history of the first Novgorod fortress dates back to the mid XI century . It was located on a small hill between two ravines where is now the Cathedral of St. Sophia with the adjacent area. When the princes of Novgorod, Vladimir Yaroslavich and Mstislav Vladimirovich (XI-XII century), the Kremlin has expanded and reached today’s size. Since ancient times there has been massive ramparts, on which at the end of the XV century were built stone walls and towers on the Italian sample.
To walk round the Kremlin in just half an hour. The length of its walls is 1350 m . the thickness reaches four. Of the twelve nine towers have survived . Five (the number of all administrative districts of Novgorod the Great) of them were travel and was a small architectural ensembles: a tower, gate Church. Continue reading