Torun is one of the most beautiful cities in Poland, situated on the North of the country on the banks of the Vistula river. Gothic architectural monuments located in the Old town of Torun, in 1997 were listed as a world heritage site by UNESCO. During the second World war, the city is not substantially affected, so all the old buildings and the building retains its original appearance.
Archaeological excavations confirm that the first settlements on the territory of present city was founded in 1100 BC but the name Torun gave the settlement the knights of the Teutonic order, who arrived here in the early thirteenth century. and who built a castle here. Toruń city rights received in 1233 over the centuries, the city remained an important center of trading routes and several times changed its owners: toruń was a part of not only Poland, but also Prussia and Sweden.
Torun – the city is famous for gingerbread, a genuine Gothic structures and Nicolaus Copernicus. Here, in 1473 G. was born the famous astronomer and mathematician, the author of the geocentric system of the world, which marked the beginning of the 1st scientific revolution. The Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun is one of the most prestigious Universities in Poland. Continue reading
The patriots have a new reason to be proud. As it turns out, Ukraine is the birthplace not only of bacon and vodka, but still pyramids. Here they were built earlier than in Egypt. Ukraine is full of peaked structures, like the flower of the sunflower seeds. The pyramids are from the Russian border to the black sea margins. This time of the pyramid discovered near Lugansk, as it should be — randomly, the students in the garden.
The first seven of the pyramids found in Crimea, near Sevastopol, two years ago. Feat Pathfinder made by a local pensioner Igor Goch. It was assumed that the pyramids are ancient jewelry. In excavations have been specialists local geologists. The tops of the ancient buildings were just large stones, but the gold really was found — two grams of a lost tourist ring.
Now Luhansk archaeologists say they’ve uncovered two pyramids and the sanctuary of the pagan God of the Sun. It has nothing to do with the Egyptian RA. The Ukrainians, as they claim, has its own ancient faith — Rovira, and the pyramid — temples of its adherents. Continue reading
Gothic, Gothic style arose and dominated the Western artistic culture immediately after romance. Gothic art originated in France around 1140 years and spread throughout Europe in the next century. The term “Gothic” applied to the late, high or classical ages. Gothic style served primarily the Church. The Gothic period is considered to be one of the greatest in the history of European art and culture.
Gothic style is most clearly represented in the architecture.
A characteristic feature of the Gothic style steel ribbed vaults. The medieval churches of the Romanesque style had a powerful stone arches, which were very heavy. They sought to shore, to push the walls outward, which could bring down the building. To keep such arches, the walls of the Romanesque buildings had to be thick and heavy. At the beginning of the 12th century, masons developed the ribbed vaults: slender stone arches, placed diagonally, transversely and longitudinally. These arches could rely just on columns, walls ceased to be load-bearing structures. In the construction so there was a real revolution. Continue reading