Architecture is the art of creating masterpieces, among which we live and which we admire every day. We pass by, not knowing how much effort, knowledge and talent invested in the seemingly ordinary in our opinion the building. In every age of the building and their architecture expressed the changes in society, in the formation of the state in public order and other things.
The term “Gothic” in the modern sense was first used by Giorgio Vasari to distinguish the Renaissance from the middle Ages. Gothic architecture originated in 1150 – 1550, in the North of France. This style not only architecture but also painting, sculpture, murals, etc., in the late Medieval period. It spread across Western and Central Europe, to a lesser extent in Eastern Europe. In part, it arose out of German culture. Also contributed to the emergence of a new style and Islamic culture, with its Crusades and products. This style is, first of all, the religious undertones that characterizes the Christian worldview. Gothic style became the platform for the displacement of feudalism because they were under pressure from the “free cities”. This contributed to the development of trade and craftsmanship in these cities, which in turn helped to gain Finance for construction,in addition to craft shops were preparing qualified specialists. Continue reading
Torun is one of the most beautiful cities in Poland, situated on the North of the country on the banks of the Vistula river. Gothic architectural monuments located in the Old town of Torun, in 1997 were listed as a world heritage site by UNESCO. During the second World war, the city is not substantially affected, so all the old buildings and the building retains its original appearance.
Archaeological excavations confirm that the first settlements on the territory of present city was founded in 1100 BC but the name Torun gave the settlement the knights of the Teutonic order, who arrived here in the early thirteenth century. and who built a castle here. Toruń city rights received in 1233 over the centuries, the city remained an important center of trading routes and several times changed its owners: toruń was a part of not only Poland, but also Prussia and Sweden.
Torun – the city is famous for gingerbread, a genuine Gothic structures and Nicolaus Copernicus. Here, in 1473 G. was born the famous astronomer and mathematician, the author of the geocentric system of the world, which marked the beginning of the 1st scientific revolution. The Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun is one of the most prestigious Universities in Poland. Continue reading
Court decisions in States, decisions of arbitration tribunals and m/n commercial arbitration, adopted by them in the territories of the States are recognised and enforced in the Russian Federation as, if the recognition and enforcement of such decisions provided by the MD of the RF and FZ. The recognition and enforcement of permitted speakers at the request of the parties to the dispute considered by the foreign court. The application is a party to the dispute in whose favor the decision in the speaker of the Russian Federation on MN/MZ the debtor or, if many of the debtor’s property. The application shall be submitted in writing, signed by the party or its representative, must contain: – the name of the AU; – the name and many in the court or the name and composition of the arbitral Tribunal or km/h commercial arbitration, MN; – the name of the claimant, his MN or MZ; – the name of the debtor, MN or mg; – information on the decision in court or in an arbitration decision, prisanee and enforcement which is filed by the claimant; – the petition of the claimant on the recognition and enforcement of decisions in court or in ARB decisions; – list of attached documents. Continue reading